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This chapter provides an overview of elimination and is divided into four main sections. The first reviews normal elimination. The second section examines altered urinary elimination, including penile sheaths, urinary catheterization, urinary diversions and bladder irrigation. The third section considers altered faecal elimination, including diarrhoea, constipation, enemas, suppositories, digital rectal examination and digital removal of faeces. The final section provides an overview of stoma care, both urinary and faecal.


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