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Figure c04/c04f001
Figure 4.1
The chain of infection: a useful tool for seeing how to prevent transmission.
Figure c04/c04f005
Figure 4.5
Results from the national Point Prevalence Survey in ESPAUR, 2016. Source: Data from English Surveillance Programme for Antimicrobial Utilisation an...
Figure c04/c04f009
Figure 4.9
Clinical handwash basin.
Figure c04/c04uf002
Figure 4.11
(1) Rub hands palm to palm. (2) Rub the back of each hand with the palm of the other hand with fingers interlaced. (3) Rub palm to palm with fingers i...
Figure c04/c04uf006
Figure 4.15
Remove gloves from the box.
Figure c04/c04uf010
Figure 4.19
Dispose of used gloves in an appropriate clinical waste bag (tiger stripe if non‐hazardous and non‐infectious).
Figure c04/c04uf014
Figure 4.23
Place the mask over your nose, mouth and chin.
Figure c04/c04uf018
Figure 4.27
Application and removal of protective eye goggles.
Figure c04/c04uf022
Figure 4.31
Put one hand into the corresponding sleeve and use the other hand to pull the gown towards you. Your hand should not go beyond the cuff.
Figure c04/c04uf026
Figure 4.35
Open the inner glove packet onto the sterile open gown package so that the glove fingers point towards you.
Figure c04/c04uf030
Figure 4.39
Repeat the process with the other glove.
Figure c04/c04uf034
Figure 4.43
Open the packet containing the gloves onto a clean surface and open out the inside packaging so that the fingers of the gloves point away from you.
Figure c04/c04uf038
Figure 4.47
Slide the fingertips of your gloved hand beneath the folded cuff of the second glove.
Figure c04/c04uf042
Figure 4.53
Cleaning with a S‐shaped motion. Source : © Gama Healthcare.
Figure c04/c04f002
Figure 4.2
(a) Gram‐positive and (b) gram‐negative bacterial cell walls. Source : Adapted from Elliot et al. ( ) with permission of John Wiley & Sons.
Figure c04/c04f006
Figure 4.6
E. coli bacteraemia rates in England, 2015/2016. Source : NHS Improvement ( ). © Crown copyright.
Figure c04/c04f010
Figure 4.10
Correct position to wash hands.
Figure c04/c04uf003
Figure 4.12
Alcohol‐based handrub hand hygiene technique for visibly clean hands. After applying a palmful of the product in a cupped hand: (1) rub hands palm to ...
Figure c04/c04uf007
Figure 4.16
Holding the cuff of the glove, pull it into position.
Figure c04/c04uf011
Figure 4.20
Place the neck loop of the apron over your head.
Figure c04/c04uf015
Figure 4.24
Secure the mask at the back of your head with ties.
Figure c04/c04uf019
Figure 4.28
Open the gown pack with clean hands onto a clean surface. Do not touch the inner packet until after the surgical scrub.
Figure c04/c04uf023
Figure 4.32
Put the other hand into the other sleeve. Again, your hand should not go beyond the cuff.
Figure c04/c04uf027
Figure 4.36
Slide the thumb of one hand (still inside the sleeve) under the folded‐over cuff of the corresponding glove.
Figure c04/c04uf031
Figure 4.40
Adjust the fit when both gloves are on.
Figure c04/c04uf035
Figure 4.44
Hold the cuff of the first glove with the opposite hand and slide the fingertips of the other hand (the one that the glove is to go on) into the openi...
Figure c04/c04uf039
Figure 4.48
Slide the fingertips of your ungloved hand into the opening of the second glove.
Figure c04/c04f003
Figure 4.3
Bacterial structures.
Figure c04/c04f007
Figure 4.7
Taylor's work in 1978 showed the areas most commonly missed following hand washing – in particular, the thumbs, especially on the dominant hand and in...
Figure c04/c04f011
Figure 4.51
Avoiding contamination by avoiding contact with the key elements. Source : Reproduced with permission of ICU Medical, Inc.
Figure c04/c04uf004
Figure 4.13
Surgical hand antisepsis. Source : Adapted from AfPP ( ) with permission of the Association for Perioperative Practice.
Figure c04/c04uf008
Figure 4.17
Remove the first glove by firmly holding the outside of the glove's wrist, then pull off the glove in such a way as to turn it inside out.
Figure c04/c04uf012
Figure 4.21
Tie the ties together behind your back, positioning the apron so that as much of the front of your body is protected as possible.
Figure c04/c04uf016
Figure 4.25
After use, remove the mask by untying or breaking the ties and pulling them forward.
Figure c04/c04uf020
Figure 4.29
Open the inner layer of the pack.
Figure c04/c04uf024
Figure 4.33
The assistant opens a pair of sterile gloves and presents the inner packaging for you to take.
Figure c04/c04uf028
Figure 4.37
Push your hand through the cuff and into the glove.
Figure c04/c04uf032
Figure 4.41
At the end of the procedure, remove the gown and gloves as a single unit by pulling the gown away from you.
Figure c04/c04uf036
Figure 4.45
Keep hold of the folded edge and pull the glove onto your hand.
Figure c04/c04uf040
Figure 4.49
Pull the glove onto your hand, again spreading your fingers slightly to help them enter the fingers of the glove.
Figure c04/c04f004
Figure 4.4
The viral life cycle. RNA, ribonucleic acid. Source : Adapted from Perry ( ) with permission of John Wiley & Sons.
Figure c04/c04f008
Figure 4.8
‘My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene’. Source : Reproduced from Sax et al. ( ) with permission of Elsevier.
Figure c04/c04f012
Figure 4.52
A correctly fitted FFP3 mask may be required for aerosol‐generating procedures on patients with infections such as tuberculosis or influenza.
Figure c04/c04uf005a
Figure 4.14
Surgical hand preparation technique with an alcohol‐based handrub formulation. Source: WHO ( ). Source : Reproduced from WHO ( ) with permission of ...
Figure c04/c04uf009
Figure 4.18
Remove the second glove by slipping the thumb of the ungloved hand inside the wrist of the glove and pulling it off while turning it inside out.
Figure c04/c04uf013
Figure 4.22
Remove the apron by breaking the neck loop and ties.
Figure c04/c04uf017
Figure 4.26
Do not touch the front of the mask.
Figure c04/c04uf021
Figure 4.30
Lift up the gown by its inner surface and hold it away from the body.
Figure c04/c04uf025
Figure 4.34
Take the gloves, keeping your hands inside your sleeves.
Figure c04/c04uf029
Figure 4.38
Pull the glove into position using the other hand (still inside its sleeve).
Figure c04/c04uf033
Figure 4.42
Turn the gown and gloves inside out.
Figure c04/c04uf037
Figure 4.46
Spread your fingers slightly to help them enter the fingers of the glove.
Figure c04/c04uf041
Figure 4.50
When both gloves are on, adjust the fit.